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Basil Care: Planting, Growing, and Harvesting Basil

Basil Facts

Basil, also known as Ocimum basilicum, is an aromatic herb that is popular in kitchens around the world. With its vibrant green leaves and distinctive fragrance, it adds a burst of flavor to a wide variety of dishes. But there is more to this herb than meets the eye – basil also boasts several health benefits. It contains essential oils like eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory properties, and linalool, which can help reduce anxiety and stress. Additionally, basil is rich in vitamin K and antioxidants that support cardiovascular health and have anticancer effects.

Originally native to India but now grown in many parts of the world, basil belongs to the mint family (Lamiaceae). There are over 60 different varieties of basil available, each with its unique taste profile. The most commonly used type is sweet basil or Genovese basil, which has a slightly sweet and peppery flavor. Thai basil offers a more licorice-like taste while lemon basil provides a citrusy twist. Growing your own basil garden allows you to explore these different flavors and experiment with various culinary creations. Plus, having fresh herbs readily available at home ensures that you always have access to their outstanding aroma and unparalleled freshness.


  • Basil is a warm-season herb, so it thrives when planted in spring after the danger of frost has passed. Planting too early can stunt growth and increase the risk of damage from cold temperatures. It’s important to wait until both the soil and air have warmed up before planting basil.
  • Basil loves sunlight, so it should be planted in an area that receives at least 6-8 hours of direct sunlight per day. Lack of adequate sunlight can lead to leggy plants with fewer leaves and reduced flavor. Consider placing your basil garden in a sunny spot near a window or on a sun-drenched patio for optimal growth.
  • To allow each basil plant enough room for its root system to spread out and grow, space them about 12 inches apart. This gives them sufficient access to water, nutrients, and reduces competition for resources between neighboring plants. Adequate spacing also helps prevent disease spread by increasing air circulation around the plants.
  • It’s best to avoid planting basil too late in the season when temperatures start dropping significantly as this can impair growth. Additionally, if your region experiences extremely hot summers or prolonged periods of drought, take precautions like providing shade during peak afternoon sun or using mulch to retain moisture levels within acceptable ranges.


  • Basil seedlings require consistent moisture for healthy growth. Water the plants regularly to keep the soil evenly moist, but not saturated. Be careful not to overwater as it can lead to root rot and other diseases.
  • Once your basil seedlings have reached around 6 inches in height, it is time to transplant them into larger pots or directly into your garden beds. Choose a sunny location with well-draining soil for optimal growth. Gently loosen the roots of the seedling and place it in a hole slightly deeper than its root ball. Firmly press down the soil around the plant to ensure good contact between roots and soil.
  • After transplanting, provide enough water to settle the soil and promote establishment. Monitor moisture levels consistently and adjust watering frequency accordingly. Remember that container-grown plants may require more frequent watering as they tend to dry out faster than those planted in garden beds.
  • As your basil seedlings grow, you may notice overcrowding among them, which can hinder proper air circulation and increase disease susceptibility. Thinning involves removing excess seedlings so that each plant has enough space to develop fully. Carefully pull out weaker or smaller looking seedlings, leaving behind only a few strong ones per pot or section of your garden bed.
  • Mature basil plants still need regular watering, especially during hot summer months when evaporation rates are high.

Remember: Download our Fact Sheet Below!

You’ll be able to refer to this reference whenever you need to look up the ideal growing conditions for this plant. 

Recommended Varieties

When choosing a basil variety there are several options that stand out. Genovese Basil is a popular choice, known for its strong flavor and large, dark green leaves. This variety is perfect for making delicious homemade pesto or adding a touch of freshness to pasta dishes. For those looking for something a little different, Thai Basil brings a unique twist to the table. With its purple stems and slightly spicier taste, this variety adds an exotic flair to any culinary creation. Thai Basil is excellent in stir-fries, curries, and even cocktails. Lemon Basil is another delightful option that provides a refreshing citrusy note to your dishes. Its bright green leaves give off a beautiful lemon fragrance that pairs well with fish or chicken dishes. Additionally, Lemon Basil can be used in teas or infused into oils for an extra burst of flavor.


  • Harvesting basil should typically be done when the plant has reached a height of about 6 to 8 inches. This is usually around 60 days after planting, but it can vary depending on the specific variety and growing conditions. It’s important not to wait too long to harvest, as the leaves can become bitter once the plant starts flowering.
  • When harvesting basil, it’s recommended to use a pair of sharp gardening scissors or pruning shears rather than plucking the leaves by hand. This helps to prevent damage to the stem and encourages new growth. Start by cutting off individual leaves or small sprigs from the top of the plant, leaving at least two sets of leaves on each stem so that it can continue to grow.
  • To promote continued growth throughout the growing season, it’s best to harvest basil regularly rather than all at once. By removing a few stems or sprigs every few weeks, you encourage branching and bushier growth. Remember that fresh basil is always better than dried basil, so try not to let your harvested basil sit for too long before using it in your favorite recipes!
  • To store fresh basil, place the stems in a jar with water, similar to how you would do with cut flowers. Keep it at room temperature and change the water every day or two to maintain freshness.
  • To air dry Basil gather a bunch of basil stems and tie them together using twine or an elastic band. Hang the bunch upside down in a warm and well-ventilated area until the leaves are dry and crumbly.
  • To dry basil in the oven. Preheat your oven to its lowest setting, spread the basil leaves on a baking sheet in a single layer, and place it in the oven for about 1 hour or until completely dry.
  • To dry in a food dehydrator, lay out the basil leaves on trays according to manufacturer’s instructions and let them dry until crispy.
  • If drying using a microwave, place the leaves between paper towels and heat them in short intervals until they become brittle.
  • When storing dried basil alway store in an airtight container away from direct sunlight.
  • If you prefer a pesto rather than dried leaves, simply blend fresh leaves with olive oil, garlic cloves, pine nuts (or other nuts), Parmesan cheese (or alternative), salt, and pepper.

Gardening Products

Interesting Facts

Basil, with its enchanting aroma and distinctive flavor, is a herb that adds a unique touch to any dish. But have you ever wondered what taste really is? Taste, like basil, can be both subjective and objective. While the basic taste sensations of sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami are universally recognized and experienced by everyone, the perception of taste varies among individuals. Some people might find basil’s taste simply refreshing and slightly minty while others might describe it as slightly spicy with hints of pepper and cloves. This interplay between personal perception and objective flavors is what makes exploring different tastes so fascinating.

Beyond its tantalizing taste profile lies a hidden mystery behind basil’s illustrious history. Known as the king of herbs in ancient Greece, basil was believed to bring luck and ward off evil spirits. Ancient Egyptians used the leaves for embalming practices due to their strong aroma that symbolized eternal life. Even today, different cultures attribute various meanings to this versatile herb – from love and fidelity in Italian folklore to protection against negativity in Indian culture. Whether it’s purely symbolism or rooted in ancient beliefs, these cultural associations only heighten our fascination with this beloved plant.

Pest and Diseases:

  • Aphids: These tiny insects can quickly infest basil plants, sucking the sap from leaves and causing them to curl. They reproduce rapidly, so it’s crucial to stay vigilant and address any aphid infestations as soon as they appear.
  • Fusarium wilt: This fungal disease is a common problem in basil plants. It attacks the roots of the plant, inhibiting its ability to absorb water and nutrients. As a result, the leaves may turn yellow or brown, and the entire plant may wilt.
  • Downy mildew: This disease is caused by a water mold that thrives in cool and humid conditions. Symptoms include grayish-white fuzz on the undersides of basil leaves, which can eventually lead to leaf drop and stunted growth.
  • Whiteflies: These tiny white insects are notorious for feeding on basil plants’ sap. They can transmit diseases like bacterial spot or transmit viruses that lead to discoloration and distortion of leaves.
  • Pythium root rot: Commonly occurring in damp soil conditions, this fungal disease attacks basil roots, causing them to rot. Plants affected by pythium root rot often exhibit wilting or yellowing foliage due to nutrient deficiency.
  • Spider mites: These minuscule arachnids are known for their ability to spin webs on basil plants’ foliage while they feast on sap. Infested leaves typically turn yellow or bronzed before drying out completely.
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Download Our Fact Sheet

Whether you’re a seasoned gardener or just starting out, it’s important to understand the basic needs of coriander plants to ensure successful growth and bountiful harvests. That’s why we’ve created a downloadable Fact Sheet for your journal or garden planner, so you have all the key information at your fingertips.

Our fact sheet provides a quick overview of details on plant care. You’ll be able to refer to this reference whenever you need to look up the ideal growing conditions for this plant, including soil type and temperature requirements. With this quick reference guide in hand, you can easily consult it whenever you need reminders about caring for your plants.

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From Garden to Pantry: Storing, Drying, and Utilizing Herbs

harvesting and preserving herbs

Choosing between the many delightful Herbs

Before you rush off to the plant store to purchase herbs for your home garden lets do some soul searching and decide which herbs are right for you. Take some time to familiarize yourself with the specific herbs you want to grow. From the refreshing zest of cilantro to the intoxicating aroma of basil, each herb brings its unique charm and flavor to the kitchen and garden. In this article we take a closer look at some popular herbs, their features, their preferred growing conditions and the secrets to cultivating them successfully.

Lets take a look at some popular herbs:

  • Oregano prefers full sun and well-draining soil. It thrives in warm climates but can also be grown indoors if provided with enough light.
  • Anise hyssop, on the other hand, enjoys partial shade and moist soil. This lovely herb not only attracts bees but also offers a unique licorice scent and taste.
  • Cilantro is another popular herb that adds a fresh and zesty kick to your dishes. It thrives in cooler temperatures and requires rich, well-draining soil. However, be aware that cilantro tends to bolt quickly in hot weather. To enjoy its vibrant flavor throughout the season, consider successive plantings every few weeks.
  • Lemon balm is an excellent choice if you enjoy citrusy fragrances. This hardy herb favors partial shade but can tolerate full sun as well. It prefers moist soil and grows vigorously once established.
  • Parsley is not only beautiful but also incredibly versatile in the kitchen! It appreciates full sun or light shade and moist soil enriched with organic matter. With its bright green leaves and mild flavor, parsley is an excellent addition to both savory dishes and garnishes.
  • Chives are easy-to-grow perennial herbs that produce delicate pink flowers atop thin stalks. They thrive in well-drained soil under full sun conditions but can tolerate some shade too. Chives make an excellent companion plant for many vegetables as their strong scent deters pests.
  • Thyme has exceptional culinary value due to its aromatic leaves that add a punch of flavor to various dishes. It prefers full sun, well-drained soil, and moderate watering. Thyme is a perfect candidate for container gardening as it cascades beautifully over the edge of pots.
  • Basil is the king of herbs renowned for its intoxicating aroma and taste. This tender annual herb thrives in warm weather, full sun, and rich, well-drained soil. There are numerous basil varieties available, each with its own unique characteristics and flavors. Sage is an evergreen herb known for its strong fragrance and grayish-green leaves. It requires full sun and well-draining soil to thrive. Sage can be used in cooking or simply enjoyed for its ornamental value in the garden.
  • Dill is an excellent addition to any herb garden with its feathery foliage and distinctive flavor. This annual herb enjoys full sun or light shade and fertile, well-draining soil. Dill adds a fresh taste to pickles, salads, fish dishes, and more.
  • Rosemary is an aromatic perennial herb that can be grown indoors or outdoors depending on your climate. It prefers full sun and well-drained soil with moderate watering. With its pine-like scent and robust flavor profile, rosemary is often used in roasts, stews, marinades, and bread recipes.
  • Mint we mentioned a few times in this article but to have a complete list we will include them all. Mint is a refreshing herb that comes in many delightful varieties such as spearmint or peppermint. Mint thrives in partial shade but can tolerate some sun too. It is a vigorous grower and spreads rapidly via underground runners. Because of this it’s best grown in containers to prevent it from taking over your garden beds.

Homemade Dried Spices from your Herb Garden

It’s not just about flavor; using fresh and homegrown spices can elevate your cooking to new heights. Pre-packaged spices gathered dust on store shelves for who knows how long before they even make it into your pantry. In contrast, when you grow spices in your own herb garden, you’re assured of their freshness straight from nature’s embrace. The vibrant colors and robust scents released by these garden treasures will awaken dormant taste buds and invigorate every dish lucky enough to be seasoned with them.

Harvesting Herbs for Maximum Flavor

To elevate the flavors of your harvest when harvesting fresh herbs you must master the art of timing. The key to unlocking the full potential of these aromatic wonders lies in understanding the factors that contribute to maximum flavor extraction. As you being to prepare for harvesting consider the following elements that will help you savor the most vibrant and tantalizing tastes from your homegrown garden. From perfect timing to delicate handling, each step plays a vital role in preserving the potent essences of these natural delights.

To harvest fresh herbs for maximum flavor, you should consider the following factors.

Techniques for Harvesting Herbs


Harvest herbs at the right stage of growth to capture the most potent flavors. Generally, the best time to harvest herbs is just before they flower. At this stage, the essential oils that give herbs their flavor are most concentrated.

Morning Harvest:

For most herbs, it’s best to harvest them in the morning after the dew has dried but before the sun becomes too hot. During this time, the essential oils are at their peak, and the leaves are still crisp and fresh.

Pruning Technique:

Use pruning for herbs with woody stems, like rosemary, thyme, and sage. Cutting back the plant encourages new growth and ensures that you have a fresh supply of flavorful leaves.

Pinching Technique:

For herbs with tender leaves, like basil and mint, use the pinching technique. Pinch off the leaves or stems just above a set of healthy leaves or nodes to encourage bushier growth and continuous harvest.

Avoid Overharvesting:

Harvest only what you need and avoid taking more than one-third of the plant’s growth at a time. Overharvesting can stress the plant and reduce its ability to produce new leaves with robust flavors.

Remove Flowers:

If you notice your herbs starting to flower, it’s best to remove the flowers promptly. This prevents the plant from putting energy into seed production, ensuring the essential oils stay concentrated in the leaves.

Handle with Care:

Treat your freshly harvested herbs gently to avoid bruising or damaging the leaves, which can lead to flavor loss.

Rinse and Dry:

If your herbs are visibly dirty, give them a gentle rinse with cool water. Pat them dry with paper towels or a clean cloth to remove excess moisture before using or storing them.

Different herbs may have different harvesting requirements, so it’s important to familiarize yourself with the specific needs of each herb in your garden.

Proper Handling to Preserve Essential Oils

Preserving essential oils is crucial in maintaining the quality and flavor intensity of your dried spices. After harvesting your fresh herbs, handle them with care to ensure minimal loss of these precious oils. Avoid bruising or crushing leaves during harvest as this can result in flavor degradation.

Instead, gently hold the stem close to where you plan to cut or pinch off leaves or stems and use sharp pruning shears or scissors specifically designed for kitchen use. Additionally, be mindful of dirt or insects that might have hitched a ride.

Give your freshly harvested herbs a gentle rinse with cool water and gently pat them dry using paper towels or a clean kitchen cloth. This way, you’ll lock in the essential oils and maintain the aromatic excellence of your dried spices.

Drying Methods for Preserving Herbs and Spices

Air drying: Hanging bundles method

When it comes to preserving the flavors of your freshly harvested herbs, air drying is a classic and straightforward method. The first step is to gather your herb harvest into small bundles, tying them tightly with twine or rubber bands.

To ensure optimal drying conditions, find a cool, dark, and well-ventilated space. Ideally, a temperature of around 70°F (21°C) with humidity levels between 40% to 50% is suitable for most herbs.

Hang the bundles upside down in this environment, allowing the herbs to naturally dry over time. The duration required for different herbs can vary depending on their moisture content and thickness.

Generally speaking, delicate leaves like basil might take about one to two weeks to dry completely, while thicker stems like rosemary may take up to three weeks. Checking on the progress regularly will give you an idea of when they are thoroughly dried and ready for storage.

Tray or rack drying herbs

For those who prefer a quicker approach or live in areas with high humidity levels, tray or rack drying methods can be more effective. Using mesh screens or specialized dehydrators allows airflow around the herbs and speeds up the drying process without compromising their flavor. To begin this method, lay your freshly picked herb leaves or stems flat on trays or racks in a single layer.

Make sure there is enough space between them for adequate air circulation. Choose equipment that promotes even airflow throughout the process; mesh screens are suitable for smaller quantities while dehydrators work well for larger batches.

Setting an optimal temperature range between 95°F (35°C) and 115°F (46°C) helps maintain the integrity of the herbs without overheating them. Additionally ensuring good ventilation further aids in removing moisture from the plants efficiently.

Sun drying herbs

Sun drying herbs is an age-old technique that not only preserves their flavors but also imparts a unique depth to their taste. However, this method requires careful attention to prevent any potential loss of essential oils due to excessive heat or damage caused by pests and debris. Begin by gently washing your harvested herbs and carefully patting them dry with a clean cloth or paper towels.

Place the herbs in a single layer on trays or screens, ensuring they are not overcrowded. Next, choose a suitable location for sun drying: a sunny spot with direct sunlight for most of the day is ideal, but if you live in an exceptionally hot climate, partial shade can help protect the delicate flavors.

While sun drying, it’s crucial to monitor the process closely. Rotate the trays periodically to ensure uniform exposure and check for any signs of pests or debris that may have made their way onto the herbs.

If necessary, use protective covers like fine mesh netting to keep unwanted visitors at bay while still allowing air circulation. By following these methods – whether it’s hanging bundles in air-drying, using tray or rack systems for faster results, or harnessing the power of sunlight – you can successfully preserve your homegrown spices from your herb garden while maintaining their delightful aromas and flavors for future culinary adventures.